Books

Why nations fail?

In a previous post, I discussed the book Collapse by Jared Diamond. In this book, Diamond discusses how societies fall apart and cease to exist due to a number of different factors. Most of the factors relate to biological causes, for instance, deforestation and a rapid growth in population. However, Acemoglu and Robinson argue that there are different determinants that contribute to a society’s downfall.

In their book, Why Nations Fail, they discuss that the determinants have to do with the institutions that are present in a nation. There are two types of institutions, inclusive institutions, and extractive institutions. Inclusive means that citizens have political freedom and can partake in political decision-making in one way or another. Extractive would mean that citizens do not have such freedom and that their country is ruled by someone who has (close to) absolute power.

They further expand this theory as to say that inclusive institutions lead to prosperity, while extractive ones do not. In nations with inclusive institutions, there is an incentive and freedom to engage in being innovative. The authors show that many of the greatest inventors lived in societies with inclusive institutions. This will lead to overall prosperity in a society.

What makes their explanation of their thesis so interesting is the fact that they provide many historical examples to back up their claims. The authors also refute other previous claims made by other scientists before them. These include geography, culture, and ignorance. Acemoglu and Robinson clarify that nations aren’t historically determined to have one of the two types of institutions, but most if it relies on contingency.

Books

Why do societies disappear?

In a previous post, I discussed Jared Diamond’s book Germs, Guns, & Steel. In this book, Diamond explains his thesis on how societies developed in terms of agriculture, language, and technology. He starts off asking an intriguing question: why didn’t the natives come to Europe? However, in Collapse he forms a thesis on how societies cease to exist. In history classwe learned a great deal on societies that no longer exist in their original forms, such as the Mayans, Easter Island, or Greenland. The question is: what pushed them toward their collapse? Diamond looks at different past societies that are no longer around and explains their collapse along a list of detrimental factors that comprise his thesis.

Easter Island is especially intriguing, as we’re all familiar with the impressive statues that decorate the island. It is often asked how these colossal sculptures were chiseled, transported, and put into place. Conspiracy theories that tell the tale of aliens visiting the Earth and having something to do with these massive monuments are floating around on the internet. Diamond explains that there are many plausible theories on how the statues got transported, for instance by using logs or ‘canoe ladders’. But how is this possible when there are barely enough trees to sustain such a phenomenon? It turns out that Easter Island underwent grave deforestation due to the settlers’ high need of wood.

Thus, Diamond lists the destruction of natural habitats (e.g. deforestation of lands, damaging coral reefs) as one of the factors that could lead to the collapse of a society. Climate change can also severely affect the environment we live in. We know that the environment needs to adhere to specific conditions for humans to be able to adapt themselves. If there isn’t sufficient food, water, shelter, and protection from predators, there is no way to sustain human life.

Though in regards to current societies, an interesting point that
Diamond makes is that photosynthetic
potential that is on the decline. Plants need sunlight to synthesize certain nutrients. However, since we keep investing urbanizing areas to accommodate the population increase, we’re “losing” the photosynthetic potential. These new buildings create more shadows, which makes it difficult for plants to grow and effectively utilize sunlight.

In Collapse, Diamond thoroughly explains the detrimental factors that play a role in the disappearance of past societies. Though, it is also a cautionary tale, as the author explains the problems we’re currently dealing with. We are far from being stable, infinite societies. Who knows in how many years researchers will wander through the remnants of New York city, excavating the once lively city, to figure out what ultimately led to its collapse.

Buy Collapse on Amazon or Bol.

Books

Why didn’t the natives come to Europe?

The history of how plants and animals spread the Earth is a fascinating one. But it is often strange to reason what caused the great differences between societies. Some people have attributed these to intelligence, which is an incorrect conclusion. Jared Diamond discusses these differences and the evolutionary process of agriculture in his book Guns, Germs & Steel. We can probably all remember from our (western) history classes that Europeans went on trips at one point, and started establishing new societies outside of their own continent.

However, why did they go on this trips? Why didn’t the natives visit Europe and create establishments there? Diamond reasons that it has to do with the environments people were in and not their innate abilities. A lot of it is dependent on the soil and other cues in the environment that made agriculture possible at one point. And Fertile Crescent is one of those places, this is an area in the Middle East. When people started domesticating plants and animals, they had more free time to invest in other projects. For instance, they could create new political systems or focus on technological innovations.

Another interesting point the author makes is the east-west major axis in Eurasia. Trade and ideas spread much easier and faster in in Eurasia, because of the limited boundaries on this axis. However, it is much different for North America, where such travel would have been more difficult.

Diamond also spends a great portion explaining how languages spread around the globe, especially focussing on Polynesia. He goes a great length to explain how and which factors contributed to the formation of agriculture and the voyages of the Europeans. And how these affected that natives living in the Americas. It is a very thorough, interesting read, definitely worth the try if you love learning more about the macro factors in history!

Societies also fall apart, leaving behind traces from which researchers try to reconstruct their story. The interesting and simultaneously scary part is that current day societies show signs that can result in their collapse, think rapid deforestation and climate change. In Collapse, Diamond explains the factors that contributed the fall of societies we mostly have heard about through history classes, such as Easter Island or Greenland. I will discuss this book in a future post.

Buy the book on Amazon or Bol.com.